This section provides easy to understand explanations to help you get the most out of your French Study Card. It goes through the layout and content, and it gives you a brief explanation of each topic with examples.
If you come across an English grammar word you are not familiar with, such as pronoun, verb tense, etc., feel free to check the Glossary section on the website.
The French Study Card displays 40 independent tables with the most important grammar categories such as pronouns, possessives, adjectives, verb tenses, as well as key words and expressions.
There are three main colours used in the grammar charts, yellow, purple and green. The persons, or the PRONOMS SUJET, determine the use of such colours throughout the card:
Always think of the Subject Personal Pronouns as the persons or things that do the action. In English they are the words I, you, he, she, it, we, you and they.
They are divided into first, second and third persons, in singular and plural.
Note that French has masculine and feminine pronouns. In English, you use the word they, whether it’s a group of men or a group of women. In French, you need to use the specific word according to the gender, ils or elles.
These are the Subject Personal Pronouns in French:
Get familiar with the colour pattern so you can easily find the word or ending you need.
With your card in hand, go through this section to find the chart’s explanations. Or you can go straight to a specific bar to get more information about it.
The section below is intended to be a general explanation of grammar created for you to understand the layout of your card, in order to take full advantage of it. By no means should this section be considered a course on its own.
Je suis Marie. I’m Marie.
Il est tres gentil. He’s very kind.
Elle habite au Canada. She lives in Canada.
Nous avons deux enfants. We have two kids
On mange quoi ce soir? What do we eat tonight?
On peut se garer ici? Can you park here?
This is a crucial verb which you will be using all the time. This verb is also used as an auxiliary verb so make sure you know it very well.
Remember to refer to the colours in the table to find the word you need to use depending on which person you are using in your sentence.
Je suis étudiant. I’m a student.
Nous sommes français. We are French.
Il est là-bas. He’s over there.
to be cold – avoir froid.
to be afraid – avoir peur.
Remember that nouns are words like apple, car, house, book, etc. You can also have abstract nouns like time, space, air.
*At the back of the card, there is a handy table with masculine and feminine endings.
le matin – the morning
la maison – the house
les matins – the mornings
les maisons – the houses
l’étudiant – the student
un livre – a book
une voiture – a car
des livres, – some books,
des voitures – some cars
tu n’as pas de soeur. You don’t have a sister.
Ce livre. This or that book.
Cet étudiant. This or that student.
Cette chaise. This chair.
Ces livres. These / those books.
Ces chaises. These / those chairs.
Ce livre –ci. This book.
Cette chaise –là. That chair.
Du lait – some milk
De la viande – some meat
De l’eau – some water
Des pommes – some apples
Je ne veux pas de viande. I don’t want any meat.
This table displays the Possessive Adjectives in masculine and feminine in the singular and plural form.
mon père, – my father
ma mère – my mother
mes amis –my friends
Mon amie Claire. My friend Claire.
This table displays the Possessive Pronouns in masculine and feminine in the singular and plural form.
C’est le chat de Claude; c’est le sien. It’s Claude’s cat; it’s his.
A: Mes parents sont américains. My parents are American.
B: Les miens aussi. Mine too.
Il y a un piscine. There is a pool
Il y a une château. There is a castle.
Il y a des enfents. There are some kids.
Il n’y a pas d’enfants. There aren’t any kids.
Est-ce qu’il y a un piscine? Is there a pool?
C’est mon livre. It’s my book.
Ce sont mes amis . They’re my friends.
C’est normal! That’s normal.
Place the interrogative words at the beginning of the question.
Quand veux-tu partir ? When do you want to leave?
Quel livre cherchez-vous? Which book are you looking for?
This table displays 36 common Adjectives. They are given in the singular masculine form.
joli – C’est une jolie ville. It’s a pretty city.
difficile – Une journée difficile. A difficult day.
Les petits enfents. The small children.
Le garçon heureux. The happy boy.
Les garçons heureux. The happy boys.
La fille heureuse. The happy girl.
Les filles heureuses. The happy girls.
This table in your card displays the six Reflexive Pronouns, each in its own colour to identify each person.
Se lever – to wash/shower
Je me lave. I wash (myself).
s’appeler – to be called
Je m’appelle. I call myself / My name is
The centre pages have plenty of information on verbs. To take full advantage of the French Study Card, it’s important to understand the layout and colour-coded system.
The main topic on this page is the Present Tense. This page has an upper and lower U table. The upper section contains 19 VERBES RÉGULIERS.
The bottom U table has 15 VERBES IRRÉGULIERS. On each box, you will find the verb in French, habiter, and its meaning in English, to live. The first box on the bottom U table indicates the six endings for each person to use with the irregular verbs:
Each box in the U table shows the verb, the meaning in English, and the stems of the verb in bold. The first stem is for the singular persons, and the second stem is for the plural persons.
In the centre of the page, you will find the regular endings for the er, ir and re verbs for each person in the colour coded system:
This table displays all the endings needed to conjugate the verbs in Present for er, ir and re regular verbs. 90% of French verbs end in er. Learn this conjugation very well, and you’ll be able to conjugate most of the verbs.
Qu’est-ce que tu fais? Je mange. What are you doing? I’m eating.
Je retourne à Dublin demain. I’m going back to Dublin tomorrow.
John habite à Londres. John lives in London.
Je finis à 18 heures. I finish at 6PM.
To form the Present tense is quite easy:
parler – to speak
finir – to finish
vendre – to sell
Je parle (I speak)
tu parles (you speak)
il/elle/ons parle (he/she/one speaks)
nous parlons (we speak)
vous parlez (you speak)
ils/elles parlent (they speak).
Use the table called FREQUÉNCE on your table, to form complete personal sentences.
Remember to practise them out loud.
To conjugate any irregular verb, add the endings on the red box in the bottom U table to the stems given in the irregular verb boxes:
Each verb box in the bottom U table shows the verb, the meaning in English, and the stems of the verb in bold. The first stem is for the singular persons, and the second stem is for the plural persons.
partir – to leave
par– (stem for: I, you, he, she, it)
part– (stem for: we, you, they)
FALLOIR- IL FAUT This is an impersonal verb. This means that it only has one grammatical person, the third person singular.
Il faut manger. It’s necessary to eat.
This table displays 7 of the most common and most irregular verbs in French. They are very common so you should know them well. Each conjugation is shown in the colour that corresponds to each person.
This table shows the pronouns used to emphasize a subject. They are displayed in the colour coded system for easy reference.
C’est lui qui habite à Paris. It’s he who lives in Paris.
Moi, j’habite à Miami. I live in Miami.
Michèle et moi ne travaillons pas. Michelle and I don’t work.
après lui – after him
avec elles – with them
sans moi – without me
Qui va a la piscine? Moi! Who’s going to the pool? Me!
J’ai faim, et toi? I’m hungry, and you?
This table displays the demonstrative pronouns in masculine, feminine, neuter in singular and plural.
Quel film veux-tu voir? Celui-ci? Which film do you want to watch? This one?
This table displays the Direct and Indirect Objects in the colour coded system.
J’ai mangé la pomme. I ate the apple.
Je l’ai mangé. I ate it. I ate it.
Est-ce que tu parles à ta voisine? Do you speak to your neighbour?
Oui, je lui parle. Yes, I speak to her.
This table shows different ways of negating in French.
Je ne fume pas. I don’t smoke.
Je ne mange jamais de la viande. I never eat meat.
Je ne cherche personne. I’m not looking for anyone.
The main topic on this page is the Passé Composé.
This page has an upper and lower U table. The upper section contains 14 verbs that are conjugated with être. The bottom U table has 19 verbs that are conjugated with avoir.
On the top U table, you will find infinitive verbs in French: aller. Their past participle underlined: allé, and their meaning in English: to go.
On the bottom U table, you’ll find infinitive verbs that are conjugated with avoir. The ending of the verb is underlined: manger, and the meaning is given in English: to eat.
In the centre of the page, you will find the regular endings for Passé Composé for the er, ir and re verbs for each person in the colour-coded system:
Tu es allée à Paris. You went to Paris.
Forming the Past Participle of the verb:
parler – to speak
finir – to finish
vendre – to sell
parler – parl + é = parlé
finir – fin + i = fini
vendre – vend + u = vendu
Forming the Passé Composé with être:
Elles sont arrivés au restaurant. They arrived at the restaurant.
Elle est restée dans sa chambre. She stayed in her room.
Tu es allée à Paris (the person is a woman). You went to Paris.
Je me suis lavée. I washed myself.
Use the time expressions in the table called EXPRIMER LE PASSÉ to create longer sentences.
Forming the Passé Composé with avoir:
J’ai parlé. I spoke.
Nous avons fini. We finished.
Tu as vendu. You sold.
For further practice, you can join or contrast sentences with the words in the table called KEY WORDS at the back of your card.
This table displays 24 irregular Past Participles.
J’ai eu une voiture. I had a car.
Elle a bu le café. She drank the coffee.
This table displays the endings needed to conjugate the Imperfect.
finir- to finish
nous finissons – we finish
L’année dernière, je travaillais avec Pierre. Last year I worked with Pierre.
J’étudais le Français à l’école. I used to study French at school.
Il faisait chaud pendant l’été l’année dernière. It was hot during the summer last year.
Il était trois heures. It was three o’clock.
Quand j’avais 10 ans. When I was 10 years old.
J’avais très faim hier. I was very hungry yesterday.
Pendant que tu étudiais, je regardais la télé. While you were studying, I was watching t.v.
This table displays all the conjugated forms for the verb être in Imperfect.
The verb être in Imperfect can’t be formed like the other verbs with the verb conjugated in the present with nous. This is an irregular verb, and you have to memorise it.
Il était à la banque. He was at the bank.
Tu étais un enfant sage? Were you a well-behaved child?
This table displays the endings needed to conjugate the verbs in Conditional.
parler, finir, vendr +
Je parlerais – I would talk
tu finirais – you would finish
elle vendrait – she would sell
Je serais disponible si les conditions étaient plus favorables. I would be available if the conditions were favourable.
Je voudrais de l’eau minérale, s’il vous plaît. I’d like mineral water, please.
This table displays the endings needed to conjugate the verbs in Future.
Je te téléphonerai la semaine prochaine. I will call you next week.
parler, finir, vendr +
Je parlerai – I will talk
tu finiras – you will finish
nous vendrons – we will sell
Quand il voyagera en France, il mangera beaucoup de fromage. When he travels (will travel) to France, he will eat a lot of cheese.
Nous aurons bientôt notre propre maison. We will soon have our own house.
This table displays the verb aller conjugated, needed to form the Futur Proche.
Elle va chanter. She’s going to sing.
Nous allons travailler. We’re going to work.
Ils vont voir Jerome. They’re going to see Jerome.
Ils vont voir Jerome demain matin. They’re going to see Jerome tomorrow morning.
Unlike English, nouns in French have a masculine and feminine gender. Some endings and categories can follow a pattern; however, there might be a few exceptions, so it’s advisable to learn the noun with an article.
This table in your card displays some masculine and feminine endings.
le fromage (the cheese)
la chaussure (the shoe)
In French, some verbs are followed by the prepositions à or de. This table displays 12 common verbs with the prepositions.
Je vais téléphoner à Richard. I’m going to call Richard.
Je joue de la guitare. I play the guitar.
He’s sleeping. Il dort or Il est en train de dormir.
I love cycling. J’adore le cyclisme.
I love dancing. J’aime danser.
Claude s’est endormi en regardant la télévision. Claude fell asleep while watching the television.
Paul écoute de la musique en faisant ses devoirs. Paul listens to music while doing his homework.
parl + ant = parlant
Il mange en parlant. He eats while he talks.
être – étant
avoir – ayant
savoir – sachant