In this section, you will find easy-to-understand explanations of each grammar table to help you get the most out of your English Study Card.
You will find explanations of the layout, the content, and the grammar points with examples.
Because this is a grammar card, it is impossible to explain certain tables without the use of grammatical terms, however, if you come across an English grammar word you are not familiar with, such as pronouns, adjectives, conjunctions, etc., you can check the Glossary section here.
The English Study from Basic to Intermediate displays 50 independent tables.
The personal pronouns and the verb to be, determine the colours used in the card.
Always think of the Subject Personal Pronouns as the persons who do the action. They are the words I, you, he, she, it, we, you, and they.
They are divided into first, second and third person, in singular and plural.
This is the normal classification of the persons:
1st person: I
2nd person: you
3rd persons: he, she and it
1st person: we
2nd person: you
3rd person: they
For easy studying purposes, and to avoid easy mistakes with the verb to be, we separated the persons into four different colours.
The pronouns I, you, he, she, it, we, you and they are the persons that are doing the action in the sentence.
This table shows you the pronouns and the verb to be conjugated in the present tense.
The contracted form is beside it.
The verb to be expresses:
I‘m Bill, I‘m a student, I‘m from New Zealand.
Your phone is on the desk. It‘s beside the pile of books.
Brian is 39 years old.
These shoes are gorgeous.
We‘re very excited.
The food in this place is tasteless.
This table shows you the structure you need for asking questions with the verb to be. As you can see in your card, you need to swap the pronouns , I, you, he, etc., and the verb to be, am, is, are.
Ryan is Canadian.
Is Ryan Canadian?
Are you hungry?
Yes, I’m starving / No, I’m OK.
What’s your phone number? It’s 087 1709970
Why are you sad? My cat isn’t eating. There’s something wrong with him.
How is your sister Emma (she)? She‘s good, thanks.
Where are you? I’m parked beside the sweet shop on George’s Street.
This table shows the negative form of the verb to be and the short form or the contracted form.
I’m not angry.
It’s not too bad. / It isn’t too bad.
We are not staying here. / We aren’t staying here.
They’re not from Lisbon. / They aren’t from Lisbon.
These tables show the structure to express the existence of something.
There is a stain on your shirt.
There are many job opportunities at the moment.
is not / are not
isn’t / aren’t
There isn’t a hotel on this street.
There aren’t any tickets left.
Is there a Mexican restaurant around here?
Are there glasses on the table?
Singular, close to the speaker: this
Singular, far from the speaker: that
Plural, close to the speaker: these
Plural, far from the speaker: those
That is my drink.
That is my house.
These are our proposals.
Those are John’s keys.
Is to is not or isn’t,
And are to are not or aren’t.
That isn’t a good idea.
These scissors aren’t very sharp.
Is this your jumper?
Are those Sarah’s kids?
This house has a great view.
Those machines make too much noise.
That factory employs a lot of people.
These cars don’t have insurance.
Have these documents been checked?
Pass me the magazine. (A specific magazine.)
Pass me a magazine. (Any magazine.)
One bag, two bags.
Examples of uncountable nouns:
love, time, tea, sugar, rice, money, air beauty, anger, water.
These quantifiers are used with countable nouns.
There are many kids in this room.
There are a few apples left in the fruit basket.
These quantifiers are used with uncountable nouns.
There is a little milk left.
There isn’t much time.
Use some in affirmative sentences. Use any in negative and interrogative sentences.
There are some cats outside.
There aren’t any kids outside.
Are there any kids outside?
You can use these quantifiers with countable or uncountable nouns.
There is a lot of time.
There are a lot of flies.
I have plenty of notes.
There’s plenty of food.
There isn’t enough butter for the cake.
There are enough players for the game.
potato – potatoes
coach – coaches
fax – faxes
I push – she pushes
I pass – she passes
puppy – puppies
party – parties
I study – she studies
display – displays
turkey – turkeys
boy – boys
knife – knives
wolf – wolves
These are Laura’s clothes. This is her favourite jumper.
Alex is an amazing musician; his talent is out of this world.
I don’t think we’ll go to the gala; our daughter is sick.
Their final exam is next week.
Example without possessive pronouns:
This pen is my pen, not your pen.
Example with possessive pronouns:
This pen is mine, not yours.
This is mine, not yours.
These tables in your card show the structure for the Present Simple in affirmative, negative, interrogative and short answers.
I live in Barcelona.
I take drum lessons on Wednesdays.
My plane leaves at noon.
The sun rises in the east.
Pronoun or noun + Verb
I work in the Marketing department.
She works in the Human Resources department.
Pronoun or noun + Auxiliary don’t/doesn’t + Verb
Susan doesn’t have a son; she has a daughter.
I don’t drink coffee; I drink tea.
(Wh- question) + Auxiliary do/does + Pronoun or noun + Verb
Do you have any brothers or sisters?
Where do you live?
How often do you go to the cinema?
Does Liam know how to play the guitar?
A: Do you have any change?
B: No, I don’t
A: Does Harry go to the gym with you?
B: Yes, he does, when he can.
These tables in your card show the structure you need to form the Present Continuous.
Melissa is sleeping now.
Is Melissa sleeping now?
Where are you going?
I’ll call you back; I‘m talking to Sean.
We‘re remodelling our house. (It’s a temporary action.)
We’re going to the cinema at 6.00 today. Are you coming with us?
I’m feeling better now, thanks.
This laptop is faster.
The thick book is cheaper than the thin one.
Mike is taller than Gabriel.
This way is quicker.
It’s hotter during the summer.
Flights are more expensive this year than last.
The cakes will be more delicious if you use goats butter.
In my opinion, this is the most beautiful painting in the whole museum.
The Well is the oldest building in the town.
The 21st of June is the longest day of the year.
Take this shortcut; it’s the quickest way to get there.
You are the most impatient person I have ever met.
This is the most delicious cake you will ever taste.
Some adjectives change their form in the Comparative and Superlative form. These need to be memorised.
This pizza is good; however, the ones from Giovanni’s are better.
You will always find the best pizza in Italy.
Sam made a delicious lasagne, do you want some?
I thought of you all day.
The concert finished at midnight.
play – played
bake – baked
go – went
write – wrote
sleep – slept
I didn’t go to work today.
Mike didn’t tell me you called me.
They didn’t want to stay in that hotel.
Where did you go?
Did you get to talk to Tom about our plans?
Did Nancy work with you during the summer?
Yes, she did. She was in charge of the invoices.
Did you have a good night sleep?
No, I didn´t. A dog barking kept me up all night.
am and is – was
are – were
was not = wasn’t
were not = weren’t
I wasn’t aware of the time.
Jim and Kate weren’t happy about it.
Your car was parked outside the school? (wrong)
Was your car parked outside the school? (right)
I got so nervous at my presentation. I was shaking.
I was thinking of you when you called.
play – playing
swim – swimming
run – running
I wasn’t copying, Miss Henderson.
Nicole wasn’t driving. Mark was.
Were you listening to the radio last night?
What were they thinking?
I wasn’t laughing at you; I was laughing at myself.
We don´t need to hire a painter. I´m sure we can do it ourselves.
She walked home by herself.
Look at the expression: I love you.
I, does the action, and the word you receives the action. The pronoun doing the action is called Subject Pronoun; the one receiving the action is an Object Pronoun.
Your card shows all the Object Pronouns in their respective colours for easy reference.
John loves Rita. John loves her.
Rita loves John. She loves him.
She could go
He might come
I can/could play the piano.
You should wait before you buy the tickets. The prices might come down.
You must wear a helmet if you want to get into the plant.
You mustn’t pass this area marked by the yellow line.
I can’t go out tonight; I’m grounded.
She can’t be in work; I saw her 10 minutes ago with Jimmy.
They may not want to come with us; they weren’t pleased the last time after your comments.
I don’t know why Carlos didn’t show up; he could be sick. He didn’t look great the last time I saw him.
Colin must be thrilled, winning a trip to the Greek Islands, how lucky!
The shop may open early tomorrow. It’s the busiest time of the year.
You can use my laptop.
Would you like to come with us?
Should we go out tonight?
I’m going to call Ben.
Jack is going to be very happy when he hears the news.
Alex is going to play at the jazz festival next October.
Is Peter going to travel with you?
Are they going to keep the house?
Tim isn’t going to be with us tonight.
I know Patty and Lisa aren’t going to choose Italian as a foreign language.
I will be good.
Megan will bring some drinks.
Don’t lift it; I‘ll do it.
She won’t want to get to the party without a present.
Will you tell her I called in?
I have worked in this company since 2012.
Esther has lived in Madrid all her life.
They have seen a lot of Dublin since they got here.
I haven’t seen that movie yet. Is it good?
Emily hasn’t called yet, do you think she’s all right?
Where have you been? I´ve been looking for you everywhere.
Have you ever been to Toledo?
This table in your card shows four different tenses and four modal verbs using there is/there are.
There is going to be a big crowd.
There haven’t been many enquiries.
This table shows you the two ways in which you can answer the question How long have you…? The answer can be either since or for.
The tables beside it, FOR / SINCE, show you when to use each word.
I have been living here since 2001.
I have been living here for a long time.